When the Ottoman sultan Mahmud II asked for Egyptian assistance to crush the Greek revolt, an expedition commanded by Ibrahim landed in Greece in and subdued the Morea Peloponnese , but a combined British, French, and Russian squadron eventually compelled the Egyptian force to withdraw. It was in Syria that Ibrahim and his French chief of staff, O. He then forced the Bailan Pass and crossed the Taurus, gaining a final victory at Konya on December 21, At Damascus he created a consultative council of notables and suppressed the feudal regime.
But his measures were harshly applied and roused sectarian opposition. The boy said to him: "Oh father! Where is your sacrifice? So pay attention to what you see". He said "Oh my father, do what you have been commanded; you will find me, if God wills, one of the patient". Isaac then said to him: "Make tight my bonds, so that I will not struggle to pull back your clothes so that none of my blood will be shed on them for Sarah will see it and be grieved.
Pass the knife over my throat so that death will be easy for me. When you come to Sarah, greet her'. Abraham began to approach him and, while crying, tied him up. Isaac too was crying such that the tears gathered by cheek of Isaac. He then drew the knife along his throat but the knife did not cut, for God had placed a sheet of copper on the throat of Isaac.
When he saw that, he turned him on his forehead and nicked him on the back of the head just as God has said in Quran When they had both submitted and he flung on his forehead , that is they had submitted the affair to God.
A voice called out: 'Abraham, you have fulfilled the vision! He took it and released his son and he bent over his son saying: "Oh my son, today you have been given to me". That comes in God's saying in Quran We ransomed him with a great sacrifice. The second strand, provided by Tabari, states that Abraham was about to sacrifice his son Ishmael and Iblis appeared in form of a man to prevent the sacrifice. Iblis, who had taken on the form of a man, said: "Where are you going, O Shaikh?
Iblis said: "By God, I have seen that Shaytan has come to you in a dream and ordered you to slaughter this little son of yours. And you intend to do that slaughtering! By God, I will most certainly continue to do what my Lord has commanded". Iblis, the enemy of God, gave up on Abraham but then he encountered Ishmael, who was behind Abraham carrying the wood and the large knife. He said to him: "O young man, do you realise where your father is taking you?
He relied: "By God, his actual intention is to sacrifice you! Iblis said to her: "Oh mother of Ishmael! Do you realise where Abraham is going with Ishmael? He said: "He has actually gone in order to sacrifice him! He is too kind and too loving towards him to do that! However, the words of the Quran never explicitly state that Abraham's dream was a Divine command. The Quran only states that Abraham had a dream, which he interpreted as a command from God, and Abraham was eventually stopped by God Himself from "sacrificing" his son.
According to these views, the problem with this interpretation is that it yields a logical contradiction, as it is clearly stated that no life can be taken without a just cause, and there was no just cause for Abraham to take the life of his son.
There are non-mainstream expositions of the Quran which harmonize the incident of Abraham's sacrifice and make the narrative of these verses consistent with the Quran's own laws, such as the one by Ghulam Ahmed Pervez , who translates the key verses as follows:.
You considered your dream as Allah's command and laid your son for the purpose of slaughtering him! This was not Our command, but merely a dream of yours. Therefore, We have saved you and your son from this.
We have done so because We keep those who lead their lives according to Divine guidance safe from such mishaps.
This great sacrifice refers to the fact that instead of keeping his leadership confined to Syria , We wanted him to become the custodian of Our House the Ka'bah, which was located in the far off barren land of Arabia and which had to become the center and gathering place of all those the world over, who believed in the unity of God internal reference Abraham encountered several miracles of God during his lifetime.
The Quran records a few main miracles, although different interpretations have been attributed to the passages. Some of the miracles recorded in the Quran are:. The first passage has been interpreted both literally, allegorically and otherwise.
Although some commentators feel that this passage referred to a physical miracle, where Abraham was physically shown the entire kingdom of Heaven Jannah ,  others have felt that it refers to the spiritual understanding of Abraham; these latter scholars maintain that the Chaldeans were skilled in the observance of the stars, but Abraham, who lived amongst them, saw beyond the physical world and into a higher spiritual realm.
The second passage has one mainstream interpretation amongst the Quranic commentators , that Abraham took four birds and cut them up, placing pieces of each on nearby hills; when he called out to them, each piece joined and four birds flew back to Abraham. As the physical cutting of the birds is not implied in the passage, some commentators have offered alternative interpretations, but all maintain that the miracle was for the same demonstrative purpose to show Abraham the power God has to raise the dead to life.
Commentators state that the 'fire' refers to main aspects. They maintained that, firstly, the fire referred to the physical flame, from which Abraham was saved unharmed.
The commentators further stated that, secondly, the fire referred to the 'fire of persecution', from which Abraham was saved, as he left his people after this with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot. Who can be better in religion than one who submits his whole self to Allah , does good, and follows the way of Abraham the true in Faith?
For Allah did take Abraham for a friend. This particular title of Abraham is so famous in Muslim culture and tradition that, in the areas in and around Mecca, Abraham is often referred to solely as The Friend. One of Abraham's most important features in Islamic theology is his role as the constructor of the Kaaba. Although tradition recounts that Adam constructed the original Kaaba, which was demolished by the Great Flood at the time of Noah, Abraham is believed to have rebuilt it in its original form.
The Quran, in the Muslim perspective, merely confirms or reinforces the laws of pilgrimage. The rites were instituted by Abraham and for all Muslims, as they perform the pilgrimage, the event is a way to return to the perfection of Abraham's faith. The Quran refers to certain Scrolls of Abraham. All Muslim scholars have generally agreed that no scrolls of Abraham survive, and therefore this is a reference to a lost body of scripture. The exact contents of the revelation are not described in the Qur'an.
The 87th chapter of the Quran, Surat al-Ala , concludes saying the subject matter of the sura has been in the earlier scriptures of Abraham and Moses. It is slightly indicative of what were in the previous scriptures, according to Islam:. Therefore give admonition in case the admonition profits the hearer. The admonition will be received by those who fear God : But it will be avoided by those most unfortunate ones, Who will enter the Great Fire, In which they will then neither die nor live.
But those will prosper who purify themselves, And glorify the name of their Guardian-Lord, and lift their hearts in prayer. Nay behold , ye prefer the life of this world; But the Hereafter is better and more enduring. Sura an-Najm mentions some more subject matters of the earlier scriptures of Abraham and Moses in Islam.
Not only were they able to free the captives, Abram's unit chased and slaughtered the Elamite King Chedorlaomer at Hobah, just north of Damascus. They freed Lot, as well as his household and possessions, and recovered all of the goods from Sodom that had been taken. Upon Abram's return, Sodom's king came out to meet with him in the Valley of Shaveh , the "king's dale". Abram then gave Melchizedek a tenth of everything.
The king of Sodom then offered to let Abram keep all the possessions if he would merely return his people. Abram refused any deal from the king of Sodom, other than the share to which his allies were entitled.
The voice of the Lord came to Abram in a vision and repeated the promise of the land and descendants as numerous as the stars. Abram and God made a covenant ceremony, and God told of the future bondage of Israel in Egypt. Abram and Sarai tried to make sense of how he would become a progenitor of nations, because after 10 years of living in Canaan, no child had been born. Sarai then offered her Egyptian handmaiden, Hagar , to Abram with the intention that she would bear him a son.
After Hagar found she was pregnant, she began to despise her mistress, Sarai. Sarai responded by mistreating Hagar, and Hagar fled into the wilderness. An angel spoke with Hagar at the fountain on the way to Shur. He instructed her to return to the camp of Abram, and that her son would be "a wild ass of a man; his hand shall be against every man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell in the face of all his brethren.
From that day onward, the well was called Beer-lahai-roi, "The well of him that liveth and seeth me. She then did as she was instructed by returning to her mistress in order to have her child.
Abram was 86 years of age when Ishmael was born. God declared Sarai's new name: " Sarah ", blessed her, and told Abraham, "I will give thee a son also of her". Not long afterward, during the heat of the day, Abraham had been sitting at the entrance of his tent by the terebinths of Mamre. He looked up and saw three men in the presence of God.
Then he ran and bowed to the ground to welcome them. Abraham then offered to wash their feet and fetch them a morsel of bread, to which they assented. Abraham rushed to Sarah 's tent to order cakes made from choice flour, then he ordered a servant-boy to prepare a choice calf. When all was prepared, he set curds, milk and the calf before them, waiting on them, under a tree, as they ate. One of the visitors told Abraham that upon his return next year, Sarah would have a son.
While at the tent entrance, Sarah overheard what was said and she laughed to herself about the prospect of having a child at their ages. The visitor inquired of Abraham why Sarah laughed at bearing a child at her age, as nothing is too hard for God. Frightened, Sarah denied laughing.
After eating, Abraham and the three visitors got up. They walked over to the peak that overlooked the 'cities of the plain' to discuss the fate of Sodom and Gomorrah for their detestable sins that were so great, it moved God to action.
Because Abraham's nephew was living in Sodom, God revealed plans to confirm and judge these cities. At this point, the two other visitors left for Sodom. Then Abraham turned to God and pleaded decrementally with Him from fifty persons to less that "if there were at least ten righteous men found in the city, would not God spare the city? When the two visitors got to Sodom to conduct their report, they planned on staying in the city square.
However, Abraham's nephew, Lot, met with them and strongly insisted that these two "men" stay at his house for the night. A rally of men stood outside of Lot's home and demanded that Lot bring out his guests so that they may "know" v. However, Lot objected and offered his virgin daughters who had not "known" v.
They rejected that notion and sought to break down Lot's door to get to his male guests, [Genesis —9] thus confirming the wickedness of the city and portending their imminent destruction. Early the next morning, Abraham went to the place where he stood before God. He "looked out toward Sodom and Gomorrah" and saw what became of the cities of the plain, where not even "ten righteous" v. Abraham settled between Kadesh and Shur in the land of the Philistines.
While he was living in Gerar , Abraham openly claimed that Sarah was his sister. Upon discovering this news, King Abimelech had her brought to him. God then came to Abimelech in a dream and declared that taking her would result in death because she was a man's wife. Abimelech had not laid hands on her, so he inquired if he would also slay a righteous nation, especially since Abraham had claimed that he and Sarah were siblings.
In response, God told Abimelech that he did indeed have a blameless heart and that is why he continued to exist. However, should he not return the wife of Abraham back to him, God would surely destroy Abimelech and his entire household.
Abimelech was informed that Abraham was a prophet who would pray for him. Early next morning, Abimelech informed his servants of his dream and approached Abraham inquiring as to why he had brought such great guilt upon his kingdom. Abraham stated that he thought there was no fear of God in that place, and that they might kill him for his wife. Then Abraham defended what he had said as not being a lie at all: "And yet indeed she is my sister; she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife.
Further, Abimelech gave Abraham a thousand pieces of silver to serve as Sarah's vindication before all. He was later called Ibrahim the Mad by some 20th-century historians due to his reputed mental condition. When Ibrahim was 2, his father suddenly died, and Ibrahim's uncle Mustafa I became the new sultan.
By that time, Kosem Sultan and her children, including young Ibrahim had been sent to the Old Palace. After the succession of his brother Murad IV , Ibrahim was confined in the Kafes , which affected his health.
However, after his brother's death, Ibrahim became the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. One of the most notorious Ottoman Sultans, Ibrahim spent all of his early life in the close confinement of the Kafes before succeeding his brother Murad IV —40 in Four of his brothers had been executed by Murad, and Ibrahim lived in terror of being the next to die.
After Murad's death, Ibrahim was left the sole surviving prince of the dynasty. Kara Mustafa also stabilized the currency with coinage reform, sought to stabilize the economy with a new land-survey, reduced the number of Janissaries, removed non-contributing members from the state payrolls, and curbed the power of disobedient provincial governors.
During these years, Ibrahim showed concern with properly ruling the empire, as shown in his handwritten communications with the Grand Vizier. Ibrahim often traveled in disguise, inspecting the markets of Istanbul and ordering the Grand Vizier to correct any problems he observed. Ibrahim was often distracted by recurring headaches and attacks of physical weakness, perhaps caused by the trauma of his early years.
In , Maltese corsairs seized a ship carrying high-status pilgrims to Mecca. This began a long war with Venice that lasted 24 years—Crete would not completely fall under Ottoman domination until In spite of the decline of La Serenissima , Venetian ships won victories throughout the Aegean , capturing Tenedos and blockading the Dardanelles. Muslims call him Ibrahim. Abraham is called Ibrahim by Muslims.
They see him as the father of the Arab people as well as the Jewish people through his two sons, Isaac and Ishmael Isma'il in Arabic. Abraham is a very interesting figure because he is depicted in the Qur'an as somebody who, from a very early age, had problems trying to understand God and trying to discover God; being restless, knowing that perhaps the Pagan environment which he was in did not have the answers.
That, ultimately, God was not the star or the sun or the wind or the moon - all these forces that he saw - God was in something else. And so from that perspective, Abraham is considered to be neither a Jewish person, nor a Christian person nor a Muslim, but somebody who is a hernif - somebody who essentially and intrinsically knows that there is really only one God.
And he is praised for this essential and innate yearning to discover the unity of God.Sep 21, · Ibrahim was born in a house of idolaters, in the kingdom of Babylon. His father Aazar was a well known idol sculptor that his people worshipped. As a young child, Ibrahim used to watch his father sculpting these idols from stones or wood.