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No Replies Log in to reply. There was an error. General Comment Oh Limp Wrist General Comment Mmmmmmmmmmmmm Martin! When sex ratio began being studied in China in , it was still within the normal range. However, it climbed to According to Zeng et al. These illegal births have led to underreporting of female infants. Zeng et al. Adjusting for unreported illegal births, they conclude that the corrected Chinese sex ratio at birth for was rather than For example, in some provinces such as Anhui , Jiangxi , Shaanxi , Hunan and Guangdong , sex ratio at birth is more than Traditional Chinese techniques have been used to determine sex for hundreds of years, primarily with unknown accuracy.
It was not until ultrasonography became widely available in urban and rural China that sex was able to be determined scientifically. However, many people have personal connections to medical practitioners and strong son preference still dominates culture, leading to the widespread use of sex determination techniques. Hardy, Gu, and Xie suggest sex-selective abortion is more prevalent in rural China because son preference is much stronger there. This is partially due to the belief that, while sons are always part of the family, daughters are only temporary, going to a new family when they marry.
Additionally, if a woman's firstborn child is a son, her position in society moves up, while the same is not true of a firstborn daughter. In the past, desire for a son was manifested by large birth rates—many couples would continue to have children until they had a son.
Even in rural areas, most women know that ultrasonography can be used for gender discernment. This points to a strong desire to select for a son if one has not been born yet. Because of the lack of data about childbirth, a number of researchers have worked to learn about abortion statistics in China.
One of the earliest studies by Qui found that according to cultural belief, fetuses are not thought of as human beings until they are born, leading to a cultural preference for abortion over infanticide. In a study, Zhu, Lu, and Hesketh found that the highest sex ratio was for those ages 1—4, and two provinces, Tibet and Xinjiang, had sex ratios within normal limits. Two other provinces had a ratio over , four had ratios between —, and seven had ratios between —, each of which is significantly higher than the natural sex ratio.
Variance in the one child policy has led to three types of provinces. Zhu et al. Type 3 provinces, typically sparsely populated, allow couples a second child and sometimes a third, irrespective of sex. High sex ratio trends in China is projected, by , to create a pool of 55 million excess young adult men than women. Families in China are aware of the critical lack of female children and its implication on marriage prospects in the future; many parents are beginning to work extra when their sons are young so that they will be able to pay for a bride for them.
The birth sex ratio in China, according to a news report, has decreased to males born for every females. The ratios in China vary greatly by region, as can be seen below. India's census revealed a national 0—6 age child sex ratio of , which increased to according to census girls per boys and girls per boys respectively, compared to expected normal ratio of girls per boys. The child sex ratio in India shows a regional pattern.
The Indian census data suggests there is a positive correlation between abnormal sex ratio and better socio-economic status and literacy. Urban India has higher child sex ratio than rural India according to , and Census data, implying higher prevalence of sex selective abortion in urban India. Similarly, child sex ratio greater than boys per girls is found in regions where the predominant majority is Hindu, Muslim, Sikh or Christian; furthermore "normal" child sex ratio of to boys per girls are also found in regions where the predominant majority is Hindu, Muslim, Sikh or Christian.
These data contradict any hypotheses that may suggest that sex selection is an archaic practice which takes place among uneducated, poor sections or particular religion of the Indian society.
Rutherford and Roy, in their paper, suggest that techniques for determining sex prenatally that were pioneered in the s, gained popularity in India. Such prenatal sex determination techniques, claim Sudha and Rajan in a report, where available, favored male births.
Arnold, Kishor, and Roy, in their paper, too hypothesize that modern fetal sex screening techniques have skewed child sex ratios in India. Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel and Daniel Rosenblum, in their paper, find that despite numerous publications and studies, there is limited formal evidence on the effects of the continued spread of ultrasound technology on missing women in India. They conclude, contrary to common belief, that the recent rapid spread of ultrasound in India, from the s through s, did not cause a concomitant rise in sex-selection and prenatal female abortion.
The Indian government and various advocacy groups have continued the debate and discussion about ways to prevent sex selection. The immorality of prenatal sex selection has been questioned, with some arguments in favor of prenatal discrimination as more humane than postnatal discrimination by a family that does not want a female child.
Others question whether the morality of sex selective abortion is any different over morality of abortion when there is no risk to the mother nor to the fetus, and abortion is used as a means to end an unwanted pregnancy. India passed its first abortion-related law, the so-called Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of , making abortion legal in most states, but specified legally acceptable reasons for abortion such as medical risk to mother and rape.
The law also established physicians who can legally provide the procedure and the facilities where abortions can be performed, but did not anticipate sex selective abortion based on technology advances. The impact of the law and its enforcement is unclear.
The Public Health Foundation of India, an activist NGO in its report, claimed a lack of awareness about the Act in parts of India, inactive role of the Appropriate Authorities, ambiguity among some clinics that offer prenatal care services, and the role of a few medical practitioners in disregarding the law.
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India has targeted education and media advertisements to reach clinics and medical professionals to increase awareness. The Indian Medical Association has undertaken efforts to prevent prenatal sex selection by giving its members Beti Bachao save the daughter badges during its meetings and conferences.
In November , MacPherson estimated that , abortions every year continue to be performed in India solely because the fetus is female. For Pakistan, the United Nations Population Fund, in its report estimates the Pakistan birth sex ratio to be In the urban regions, particularly its densely populated region of Punjab, report a sex ratio above less than females per males.
In , two Pakistani organisations discovered large cases of infanticide in Pakistani cities. The infanticide was mainly almost all were female infants. The reason given by the local authorities were poverty and local customs, where boys are preferred to girls. However, the large discovery in Karachi shows that many of the female infants were killed because of the local Islamic clerics, who ordered out of wedlock babies should be disregarded.
As, babies born out of wedlock in Islam is considered a sin. From January to April , Edhi Center foundation and Chhipa Welfare organisation have found such new born babies dumped in garbage in Karachi only and 99 percent of them were girls. Edhi Foundation has found such dead infants from the garbage dumps across the country in ; 99 percent of them were identified girls.
And Karachi has topped in this notorious ranking with cases in As many as 72 dead girls have been buried in the first four months of this year by Edhi Foundation alone in the metropolitan city.
The given data is just tip of the iceberg as Edhi foundation maintains the data of those cities where it provides services. Further information: Sex-selective abortion in South Korea. Sex-selective abortion gained popularity in the mids to early s in South Korea , where selective female abortions were commonplace as male children were preferred. Historically, much of Korea's values and traditions were based on Confucianism that dictated the patriarchal system,  motivating the heavy preference for sons.
Additionally, even though the abortion ban existed, the combination of son preference and availability of sex-selective technology led to an increasing number of sex-selective abortions and boys born.
Therefore, scholars have been continuously analyzing and generating connections among sex-selection, abortion policies, gender discrimination, and other cultural factors. Other countries with large populations but high sex ratios include Vietnam.
The United Nations Population Fund, in its report,  claims the birth sex ratio of Vietnam at with its densely populated Red River Delta region at Taiwan has reported a sex ratio at birth between 1. Recently, a rise in the sex ratio at birth has been noted in some parts of Nepal , most notably in the Kathmandu Valley , but also in districts such as Kaski. Abnormal sex ratios at birth, possibly explained by growing incidence of sex-selective abortion, have also been noted in some other countries outside South and East Asia.
The Caucasus has been named a "male-dominated region", and as families have become smaller in recent years, the pressures to have sons has increased. After the collapse, the birth sex ratios sharply climbed and have remained high for the last 20 years. According to an article in The Economist the sex ratio in Armenia is seen to be a function of birth order.
The article claimed that among first born children, there are boys for every girls. According to latest CIA data, the sex ratio in the region is for Armenia, for Azerbaijan, and for Georgia. An imbalanced birth sex ratio has been present in the 21st century in the Western Balkans , in countries such as Albania , Macedonia , Kosovo and Montenegro.
Scholars claim this suggests that sex-selective abortions are common in southeast Europe. Like in other countries, sex-selective abortion is difficult to track in the United States because of lack of data. While some parents in United States do not practice sex-selective abortion, there is certainly a trend toward male preference. However, it is notable that minority groups that immigrate into the United States bring their cultural views and mindsets into the country with them.
A study carried out at a Massachusetts infertility clinic shows that the majority of couples using these techniques, such as Preimplantation genetic diagnosis came from a Chinese or Asian background.
This is thought to branch from the social importance of giving birth to male children in China and other Asian countries. A study of the United States Census suggests possible male bias in families of Chinese, Korean and Indian immigrants, which was getting increasingly stronger in families where the first one or two children were female. In those families where the first two children were girls, the birth sex ratio of the third child was 1.
Because of this movement toward sex preference and selection, many bans on sex-selective abortion have been proposed at the state and federal level. In and , sex-selective abortions were banned in Oklahoma and Arizona , respectively. A study  by John Bongaarts based on surveys in 61 major countries calculates the sex ratios that would result if parents had the number of sons and daughters they want.
In 35 countries, claims Bongaarts, the desired birth sex ratio in respective countries would be more than boys for every girls if parents in these countries had a child matching their preferred gender higher than India's, which The Economist claims is Estimates of implied missing girls, considering the "normal" birth sex ratio to be the — range, vary considerably between researchers and underlying assumptions for expected post-birth mortality rates for men and women.
For example, a study estimated that over 90 million females were "missing" from the expected population in Afghanistan , Bangladesh , China , India , Pakistan , South Korea and Taiwan alone, and suggested that sex-selective abortion plays a role in this deficit.
Although there is significant evidence of the prevalence of sex-selective abortions in many nations especially India and China , there is also evidence to suggest that some of the variation in global sex ratios is due to disparate access to resources. As MacPherson notes, there can be significant differences in gender violence and access to food, healthcare, immunizations between male and female children. This leads to high infant and childhood mortality among girls, which causes changes in sex ratio.
Disparate, gendered access to resources appears to be strongly linked to socioeconomic status. Specifically, poorer families are sometimes forced to ration food, with daughters typically receiving less priority than sons. In other words, the poorest families are typically less bound by cultural expectations and norms, and women tend to have more freedom to become family breadwinners out of necessity. Increased sex ratios can be caused by disparities in aspects of life other than vital resources.
According to Sen , differences in wages and job advancement also have a dramatic effect on sex ratios. This is why high sex ratios are sometimes seen in nations with little sex-selective abortion.
Lopez and Ruzikah found that, when given the same resources, women tend to outlive men at all stages of life after infancy. However, globally, resources are not always allocated equitably. Thus, some scholars argue that disparities in access to resources such as healthcare, education, and nutrition play at least a small role in the high sex ratios seen in some parts of the world. Moreover, in India, lack of equal access to healthcare has led to increased disease and higher rates of female mortality in every age group until the late thirties Sen This is particularly noteworthy because, in regions of the world where women receive equal resources, women tend to outlive men Sen Women outlive men in all but 2 countries.
Economic disadvantage alone may not always lead to increased sex ratio, claimed Sen in For example, in sub-Saharan Africa, one of the most economically disadvantaged regions of the world, there is an excess of women. So, if economic disadvantage is uncorrelated with sex ratio in Africa, some other factor s may be at play.
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