They do not actively seek out human prey, but are very defensive and will attack when provoked. Hammerhead sharks are consummate predators that use their oddly shaped heads to improve their ability to find prey.
Their wide-set eyes give them a better visual range than most other sharks. And by spreading their highly specialized sensory organs over their wide, mallet-shaped head, they can more thoroughly scan the ocean for food. One group of sensory organs is the ampullae of Lorenzini, which allows sharks to detect, among other things, the electrical fields created by prey animals.
According to the International Shark Attack File , humans have been subject to 17 documented, unprovoked attacks by hammerhead sharks within the genus Sphyrna since AD. No human fatalities have been recorded. The great and the scalloped hammerheads are listed on the World Conservation Union's IUCN Red List as endangered , whereas the smalleye hammerhead is listed as vulnerable.
The status given to these sharks is as a result of overfishing and demand for their fins, an expensive delicacy. Among others, scientists expressed their concern about the plight of the scalloped hammerhead at the American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting in Boston. The young swim mostly in shallow waters along shores all over the world to avoid predators. Shark fins are prized as a delicacy in certain countries in Asia such as China , and overfishing is putting many hammerhead sharks at risk of extinction.
Fishermen who harvest the animals typically cut off the fins and toss the remainder of the fish, which is often still alive, back into the sea. In native Hawaiian culture, sharks are considered to be gods of the sea, protectors of humans, and cleaners of excessive ocean life. Some of these sharks are believed to be family members who died and have been reincarnated into shark form.
However, some sharks are considered man-eaters, also known as niuhi. These sharks include great white sharks , tiger sharks , and bull sharks. The hammerhead shark, also known as mano kihikihi , is not considered a man-eater or niuhi ; it is considered to be one of the most respected sharks of the ocean, an aumakua.
Many Hawaiian families believe that they have an aumakua watching over them and protecting them from the niuhi. The hammerhead shark is thought to be the birth animal of some children. Hawaiian children who are born with the hammerhead shark as an animal sign are believed to be warriors and are meant to sail the oceans. Hammerhead sharks rarely pass through the waters of Maui , but many Maui natives believe that their swimming by is a sign that the gods are watching over the families, and the oceans are clean and balanced.
The relatively small bonnethead is regular at public aquariums as it has proven easier to keep in captivity than the larger hammerhead species,   and it has been bred at a handful of facilities.
In March , three endangered, commercially valuable sharks, the hammerheads, the oceanic whitetip , and porbeagle , were added to Appendix II of CITES , bringing shark fishing and commerce of these species under licensing and regulation.
Among Torres Strait Islanders , the hammerhead shark, known as the Beizam, is a powerful totem , and often represented in cultural artefacts such as the elaborate headdresses worn for ceremonial dances, known as dhari or dari. Sharks are associated with law and order. Renowned artist Ken Thaiday Snr is known for his representations of beizam in his sculptural dari and other works.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 3 July Family of sharks. Play media. Sharks portal. For a topical guide to this subject, see Outline of sharks. John Alroy. Retrieved Sphyrna tiburo. Animal Diversity Web.
Retrieved on Discovery News. Associated Press. July 1, Archived from the original on June 22, Retrieved October 18, Retrieved November 9, The intervention of Mr.
Negative also radically changed Hammerhead's personality. Hammerhead now recalls his life as Russian immigrant prior to the accident in which he adopted the s gangster persona. Consequently, Hammerhead no longer speaks like a s movie gangster, but instead behaves as a typical modern Russian mobster and hitman, as this was apparently his original personality prior to his head injury. Hammerhead is highly skilled in the organization, concealment, and management of criminal enterprises.
He is an effective hitman, a skilled marksman his preferred weapon was the Thompson submachine gun , and an excellent street fighter. In his original incarnation, Hammerhead was able to hold his own against Spider-Man despite being an ordinary human by using his superhumanly durable skull as a blunt instrument. After his recent augmentation, he is now capable of grappling with and physically overpowering Spider-Man to the extent that he could eventually crush his foe.
In the Marvel Zombies vs. The Army of Darkness miniseries, Hammerhead briefly appears, along with the Owl and the Kingpin, at a meeting to discuss how to survive the zombie outbreak. This version of Hammerhead is ultimately killed by the Punisher. The Ultimate Marvel version of Hammerhead first appears in Ultimate X-Men as a mobster who has killed the parents of a little girl.
Gambit gets out of the ambush and chases Hammerhead down. In the end, Gambit charges Hammerhead's inorganic skull full of bio-kinetic energy and causes his head to explode. It is also known his first name is Joseph. I came back. He kills Silvermane in the beginning of the Warriors story arc and becomes the Enforcers ' new leader.
He burns down one of the Kingpin's warehouses. After an intense battle with Spider-Man , Black Cat , Moon Knight , Iron Fist , and Shang-Chi , he was put in a coma when Elektra brutally stabbed him in the chest with her sai and flung him out of a window.
An alternate version of Hammerhead appears as one of the antagonists in the Cage limited series by Brian Azzarello and Richard Corben. This version of the character is a deformed gangster named Sonny "The Hammer" Caputo , who is embroiled in a gang war with Tombstone. During the Age of Ultron storyline, a reality where Ultron nearly annihilated the human race has Hammerhead and Owl capturing Superior Spider-Man and hoped to trade him to Ultron.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. In contrast, adult B. Hammerhead worms are native to tropical and subtropical regions but have become invasive worldwide. It's believed the planarians were accidentally transported and distributed on rooted horticultural plants. Because hammerhead worms require humidity, they are uncommon in desert and mountain biomes. Bipalium worms are carnivores , known to prey on earthworms , slugs , insect larvae, and each other.
The worms detect prey using chemoreceptors located under the head or ventral groove. A hammerhead worm tracks its prey, pushes it against a surface, and entangles it in slimy secretions.
Once the prey is mostly immobilized, the worm extends is pharynx from its body and secretes digestive enzymes, then sucks liquefied tissue into its branched gut using cilia. When digestion is complete, the worm's mouth also serves as its anus. Hammerhead worms store food in vacuoles in their digestive epithelium. A worm can survive several weeks on its reserves and will cannibalize its own tissues for food.
While some types of worms are edible , the hammerhead worm is not among them. The planarian contains the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin , which the worm uses to immobilize prey and deter predators The toxin is also found in pufferfish, the blue-ringed octopus , and rough-skinned newts, but was not known to occur in any species of terrestrial invertebrate prior to its discovery in the hammerhead worm.
Hammerhead worms have been mistakenly called hammerhead slugs because they move in a slug-like fashion. They use cilia on their creeping sole to glide over a strip of mucus.Hammerhead is one of Kay Challis's many personalities. Hammerhead is an aggressive personality with enhanced strength. When "surfaced" in their shared body, she has a skull tattoo on her chest, and in the underground, she is bald. Hammerhead is one of the many personalities of Kay Challis whose mind fragmented due to suffering sexual abuse from her own father at the young age of clubexandalynewlapeconmembspanat.coinfo episode: "Pilot".