These organizations are secretive by nature. One set of bylaws I acquired even said that any girl who talks about certain chapter business to any non-members which would include parents could be kicked out of the group.
Parents should make sure to keep an open line of communication so that their daughters feel comfortable telling them about their sorority lives and so that parents can continue to guide their children through a program that can become dangerous. In Atlanta, the totals are lower but the surge is apparent: 76 homicides so far this year compared to 56 for the first seven months of It has been a similar story in Boston.
After recording 25 homicides in the first seven months of , Boston had 35 during the same period this year. And 15 of those were during July. But every day headlines around the country tell story after story of children dying while doing nothing more than being children. In Ohio, in little more than a week: A year-old boy in Columbus died on July 25 when he was shot while riding a scooter; An infant was killed and his twin brother wounded when someone fired shots into their home on July And on Sunday, a 1-year-old was killed in Akron and two adults wounded when someone opened fire on a home.
It was not immediately clear exactly how many children were homicide victims this year in Ohio, but in Columbus alone, the total stands at In Philadelphia, a 7-year-old shot in the head over the weekend during a shootout between three men in front of his home later died of his injuries. However, both informing and petty crime undermine the terrorist group, the latter because if the paramilitaries' response is not satisfactory, it can erode their local support.
The IRA defined "political" crime as informing or fraternizing with British soldiers, while "normal" crime was judged to include vandalism, theft, joyriding, rape, selling drugs, and " antisocial behavior "—anything from verbally abusing the elderly to dumping rubbish. The typical punishment for repeat offenders was kneecapping , a malicious wounding of the knee with a bullet.
The IRA also punished its own members for misusing the organization's name, losing weapons, disobeying orders, or breaking other rules, and launched purges against other republican paramilitary groups such as the Irish People's Liberation Organisation and the Official IRA. Within the IRA, those responsible for punishment belonged to auxiliary cells and were considered the "dregs" of the organization.
The IRA maintained distinct sections for internal and external punishment. The IRA pledged to stop kneecapping in , and both shootings and beatings drastically declined. However, soon community members were calling for more paramilitary attacks to combat an increase in crime, especially violent rapes. Other republican paramilitary groups also punished offenders but on a smaller scale. Ulster loyalist paramilitaries, whilst not drawing on historical precedents, justified their role in terms of maintaining order and enforcing the law.
Unlike republican vigilantes, however, they saw their role as aiding the Royal Ulster Constabulary rather than subverting it. Nevertheless, they were prepared to mete out their own punishments in cases where they judged the official justice system not to deal harshly enough with the alleged offender.
In , the Ulster Defence Association UDA , the largest Ulster loyalist group, formed as a merger between various neighbourhood watch and vigilante groups.
It adopted the motto Codenta Arma Togae "law before violence" and states that its aim is to see order restored throughout Northern Ireland. The UDA has collected evidence on petty crime and used vigilante punishment against criminals, antisocial elements, rival Ulster loyalist paramilitary groups, and as a means of discipline within groups.
It also used the threat of punishment in order to conscript new members. Criminals were warned or reported to the official police. Between and , loyalists were responsible for many fewer punishment attacks than republicans, due to a view that their role was protecting Protestants from Catholics rather than enforcing rules within Protestant communities. From to , they were responsible for a similar number of attacks.
According to insider Sammy Duddy , the UDA stopped reporting offenders to the police and started to engage in punishment shootings because the police was pressuring the offenders to inform on loyalist groups.
Loyalist groups' punishment style is more haphazard and groups who cannot find their intended target have been known to attack an innocent Catholic individual. In , newspapers reported that the UVF had set up a "court" in Shankill which fined offenders for various offenses, but according to sociologist Heather Hamill this is more likely a reflection of ability to pay rather than a genuine justice system based on severity of the offence.
In , the North Belfast branch of the UDA announced that it was ceasing violent punishments in favour of "naming and shaming" offenders, who were forced to stand with placards announcing their offence.
This change proved short lived. The punishment methods of republican and loyalist paramilitaries are similar. Initially, both republican and loyalist paramilitaries were reluctant to shoot or seriously harm women and children younger than 16, although this became more frequent as the Troubles continued. More minor punishments, often used on first offenders, are warnings, promises not to offend again, curfews, and fines.
The victim was forced to hold a placard or tarred and feathered. In republican areas, women accused of fraternizing with British soldiers had their heads shaved.
The use of such types of humiliation was greatest in the s and decreased due to the risk of getting caught and complaints from Derry Women's Aid that the practice was misogynistic. Sometimes paramilitaries would approach a person and ask them to leave West Belfast  or Northern Ireland within a certain period of time such as 48 hours , with an implicit threat of serious injury or execution if they did not comply.
Most victims are young, unemployed and lack educational qualifications as well as the skills and savings needed to establish themselves in a new area. Some victims, although they have not been convicted of any crime, go to juvenile detention centres to avoid punishment until their sentence expires.
Some of them act as husbands, or fathers, or brothers, others because their politics, culture or religion positions them as higher-value than women.
Some men will report that this is just the way it is — culturally or religiously, in particular — and that there is nothing wrong with it. And when assault and violence against women is an accepted part of daily life, and women are viewed as property rather than people, it can also lead to murder: for instance, honor killings — which have allegedly happened in Germany , and even in America see this article in The Atlantic for several stories of men killing their daughters for wanting to be independent or more Western, or for dating American boys.
Another solution to protecting women from this kind of sexual assault that has been proposed is to have women-only train cars and buses in cities where this is becoming more and more of a crisis. Some countries have found this strategy to be more effective than others; for a rundown of which countries have implemented same-sex transportation, check out this list in the Guardian.
There is no easy answer to this problem because the 1 goal of this conversation is to change the status quo and build a world where men are not free to assault women, do not feel justified in attacking women and are not socially, culturally or religiously entitled to assault women.
But protecting women from men during this time before the world changes to become a safe place for all is also the 1 goal. About WMC SheSource is an online database of media-experienced women experts who we connect to journalists, bookers and producers. FORCE is displaying its Monument Quilt - the stories of rape survivors stitched and drawn into red material - in Salt Lake City this week in partnership with the filmmakers.
Sofana R. Dahlan Founder and CEO. Dahlan is CEO and founder of Taskeil, a Saudi Arabia based enterprise that incubates and promotes creative entrepreneurs. Brenda is the Vice President of Legal Strategies at Demos, a public policy organization that works for American's equality in speech and economy.
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