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Wavematic - Various - Osmotic Wave (CD)

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Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Background and Aims. Cynodon dactylon , Digitaria sanguinalis , drought stress , osmotic stress , phenotypic plasticity , Pisum sativum , plant communication , root communication , root signalling , Stenotaphrum secundatum , stress cues.

Split-root Pisum sativum L. Each IND plant had three similarly sized roots, two of which were planted in an exclusive induction pot, which was subjected to either osmotic stress or a benign control treatment yellow pot, Fig. The third root of each IND plant was planted in a second pot, sharing its rooting volume with the roots of five intact target plants T1—T5; Fig. This configuration allowed the target plants to both perceive stress cues from the IND plant and exchange amongst themselves stress cues.

Open in new tab Download slide. On the receiver unstressed plant end, plastic responsiveness to anticipatory cues regarding imminent stress may help plants to avoid potentially significant costs associated with constitutive stress adaptations Heil and Karban, , and references therein. In the case of drought and osmotic stress, both constitutive and induced adaptions may include costly allocation to specific attributes e.

Skirycz and Inze, , which, in and of themselves, might significantly limit plant performance under benign conditions Sambatti and Caylor, Much like in the case of the induction of defences against herbivores Kessler and Heil, , responses to stress cues may result in reduced performance. For example, Falik et al. It is expected that unstressed cue receivers will also incur long-term costs related to increased stress readiness priming , which may come at the expense of fitness losses under benign conditions, i.

In addition, due to allocation trade-offs, both induced and primed plants might be more vulnerable to additional challenges such as competition and herbivory. Ongoing research is aimed at studying the potential adaptive consequences of responsiveness to communicated stress cues with an emphasis on separating the potential induction of a elevated stress adaptation and b increased latent readiness to develop full-scale stress adaption priming to forthcoming stress conditions.

Although a recent study has demonstrated clear fitness costs to induction of resistance against pathogens but no costs to priming for the same adaptations van Hulten et al. Google Scholar Crossref. Search ADS.

Relative advantages of plasticity and fixity in different environments: when is it good for a plant to adjust? Induction of increased salt-tolerance in Sorghum bicolor by NaCl pretreatment. On the importance of information-acquiring systems in plant—plant interactions. Chemical information transfer between wounded and unwounded plants: backing up the future.

Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Sibling competition is a consequence of restricted dispersal in an annual cleistogmous grass. Below-ground carbon transfer among Betula nana may increase with warming in Arctic tundra.

Hydraulically integrated or modular? Comparing whole-plant-level hydraulic systems between two desert shrub species with different growth forms. Establishment of Cynodon dactylon from stolon and rhizome fragments.

The paradox of risk assessment: comparing responses of fathead minnows to capture-released and diet-released alarm cues from two different predators. Members only: induced systemic resistance to herbivory in a clonal plant network.

Within-plant distribution of induced resistance in apple seedlings: rapid acropetal and delayed basipetal responses. Evidence for a temperature acclimation mechanism in bacteria: an empirical test of a membrane-mediated trade-off.

Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon : a history of the weed and its control in Israel. New World tropical forage grasses and their management. Augustinegrass, and jaraguagrass. Communication between plants: induced resistance in wild tobacco plants following clipping of neighboring sagebrush. The multiple faces of indirect defences and their agents of natural selection. A model for predicting Large Crabgrass Digitaria sanguinalis emergence as influenced by temperature and water potential.

Acclimation and adaptive responses of woody plants to environmental stresses. Maize leaf temperature responses to drought: thermal imaging and quantitative trait loci QTL mapping. Congruence between geographic range distribution and local competitive ability of two Lupinus species.

Cautious cannibals: behavioral responses of juvenile and adult blue crabs to the odor of injured conspecifics. Alternative Approach. Wave 1 was designed to be non-invasive. Learn More. Doctor Insights. WAVE 1 Stories. Get Started Here. Iliff JJ, Nedergaard M. Is there a cerebral lymphatic system? Bradbury M, Cserr H. Drainage of cerebral interstitial fluid and of cerebrospinal fluid into lymphatics.

In: Johnston M, editor. Exp Biol Lymphat Circ. Elsevier; New York, NY: Perivascular drainage of amyloid-beta peptides from the brain and its failure in cerebral amyloid angiopathy and Alzheimer's disease. Brain Pathol. Solutes, but not cells, drain from the brain parenchyma along basement membranes of capillaries and arteries: Significance for cerebral amyloid angiopathy and neuroimmunology. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol.

Perivascular drainage of solutes is impaired in the ageing mouse brain and in the presence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Acta Neuropathol. Bjorkhem I, Meaney S. Brain cholesterol: long secret life behind a barrier. Arter Thromb Vasc Biol. Cholesterol homeostasis in human brain: turnover of 24S-hydroxycholesterol and evidence for a cerebral origin of most of this oxysterol in the circulation.

J Lipid Res. Cholesterol homeostasis in human brain: evidence for an age-dependent flux of 24S-hydroxycholesterol from the brain into the circulation. J Biol Chem. J Clin Invest. Apolipoprotein E: high-avidity binding to beta-amyloid and increased frequency of type 4 allele in late-onset familial Alzheimer disease. Gene dose of apolipoprotein E type 4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer's disease in late onset families. Apolipoprotein E associated with astrocytic glia of the central nervous system and with nonmyelinating glia of the peripheral nervous system.

J Neurosci. Paravascular microcirculation facilitates rapid lipid transport and astrocyte signaling in the brain. Sci Rep. Detection of a relation between respiration and CSF pulsation with an echoplanar technique. J Magn Reson Imaging. Influence of respiration on cerebrospinal fluid movement using magnetic resonance spin labeling. NG2 cells generate both oligodendrocytes and gray matter astrocytes.

Brain-wide pathway for waste clearance captured by contrast-enhanced MRI. Cerebral arterial pulsation drives paravascular CSF-interstitial fluid exchange in the murine brain. Schroth G, Klose U. Cerebrospinal fluid flow - I.

Physiology of cardiac-related pulsation. Arterial pulsation-dependent perivascular cerebrospinal fluid flow into the central canal in the sheep spinal cord. The influence of the relative timing of arterial and subarachnoid space pulse waves on spinal perivascular cerebrospinal fluid flow as a possible factor in syrinx development.

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Neurobiol Learn Mem. Siegel JM. Clues to the functions of mammalian sleep. Cerebral O2 metabolism and cerebral blood flow in humans during deep and rapid-eye-movement sleep. J Appl Physiol. Sleep drives metabolite clearance from the adult brain. The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system: Modulation of behavioral state and state-dependent cognitive processes. Norepinephrine: a neuromodulator that boosts the function of multiple cell types to optimize CNS performance.

Neuroendocrine regulatory mechanisms in the choroid plexus-cerebrospinal fluid system. Impairment of paravascular clearance pathways in the aging brain.

Ann Neurol. Age-related changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive astrocytes in the rat cerebellar cortex. Mech Ageing Dev.

Deane R, Zlokovic BV. Role of the blood-brain barrier in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Curr Alzheimer Res. Age-related changes in choroid plexus and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function in the sheep. Exp Gerontol. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure decreases with older age. PLoS One. Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and therapy of arterial stiffness. Protein aggregation and neurodegenerative disease. Nat Med.

Protein aggregation and degradation mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases. Am J Neurodegener Dis. Propagation of tau misfolding from the outside to the inside of a cell. Lewy body-like pathology in long-term embryonic nigral transplants in Parkinson's disease. Lewy bodies in grafted neurons in subjects with Parkinson's disease suggest host-to-graft disease propagation.

In vivo microdialysis reveals age-dependent decrease of brain interstitial fluid tau levels in PS human tau transgenic mice. Palop JJ, Mucke L. Amyloid-beta-induced neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: from synapses toward neural networks.

Nat Neurosci. Neuronal activity regulates the regional vulnerability to amyloid-beta deposition. Oligodendrocytes are a novel source of amyloid peptide generation. Seeding of normal Tau by pathological Tau conformers drives pathogenesis of Alzheimer-like tangles.

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Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. Author manuscript; available in PMC Mar Find articles by Eva Szigethy. Find articles by Mitchell Knisely. Find articles by Douglas Drossman. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Author contributions All authors contributed equally to this manuscript.

Correspondence to E. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Opioids were one of the earliest classes of medications used for pain across a variety of conditions, but morbidity and mortality have been increasingly associated with their chronic use.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Trends in total opioid consumption by country between and Opioid-induced gastrointestinal effects Substantial evidence links opioid use to compounding and deleterious gastrointestinal-related adverse effects, collectively known as opioid-induced bowel dysfunction OIBD. Figure 2. Summary of opioid-induced effects within the gastrointestinal system.

Opioid-induced constipation. Narcotic bowel syndrome. Figure 3. Putative mechanisms for narcotic bowel syndrome and other models of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Prevention and treatment considerations Patients with chronic pain who request opioids pose an ethical dilemma to clinicians who strive to find a balance between adequate pain relief and the risks of misuse and abuse of opioids.

Box 1 Risk mitigation when prescribing opioids. Opioid detoxification. Alternative pharmacological treatments. Table 1 Evidence for antidepressant medication efficacy for treating abdominal pain. Study design Number of studies number of participants Medication versus comparison groups Duration of therapy weeks Selected outcome assessment Summary of evidence of efficacy TCAs Ford et al. Box 2 Definitions of psychological confounders of opioid management.

Nonpharmacological treatments for pain. Study design Number of studies included number of participants Behavioural interventions included Outcomes of interest Summary of evidence for behavioural interventions Altayar et al. Psychopathological considerations. Conclusions Opioid misuse is a global epidemic and has led to substantial increases in opioid-related abuse and mortality. Box 3 Outstanding research questions for managing chronic abdominal pain. Acknowledgements M.

Footnotes Competing interests E. References 1. Berterame S et al. Use of and barriers to access to opioid analgesics: a worldwide, regional, and national study. Lancet , — Psychopharmacol 16 , — Pain 18 , — Pain 19 , 59—66 Drug Policy 25 , — The Economist. Pain Manag. Nurs 1 , 3—12 World Health Organization.

Care 38 , 71—90 Med 32 , — Daubresse M et al. Ambulatory diagnosis and treatment of nonmalignant pain in the United States, — Care 51 , — MMWR Morb. Wkly Rep 64 , — The opioid epidemic: by the numbers HHS. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Pain Med 14 , — Health Aff 35 , — Vowles KE et al. Rates of opioid misuse, abuse, and addiction in chronic pain: a systematic review and data synthesis. Pain , — Motil 22 , —e96 Pharmacol 78 , — Degenhardt L et al.

The global epidemiology and burden of opioid dependence: results from the global burden of disease study. Addiction , — Lancet Psychiatry 3 , — Boscarino JA et al. Risk factors for drug dependence among out-patients on opioid therapy in a large US health-care system. Pain 8 , — Katz NP et al. Behavioral monitoring and urine toxicology testing in patients receiving long-term opioid therapy.

Analg 97 , — Pain 22 , — Pain Med 18 , — Liver Physiol , G—G Med 49 , — Medicines used and spending in the U. Mayo Clin. Proc 91 , — Bowel Dis 19 , — Hepatol 13 , — Gastroenterol , — Lichtenstein GR et al.

Bowel Dis 18 , — Pancreas 41 , — Dorn S et al. Patients with IBS commonly use narcotics [abstract]. Gastroenterology Suppl. Barth KS et al. Screening for current opioid misuse and associated risk factors among patients with chronic nonalcoholic pancreatitis pain.

Pain Med 15 , — Pneumatic compression, but not exercise, can avoid intradialytic hypotension: a randomized trial. Am J Nephrol ; 45 : — How to successfully achieve salt restriction in dialysis patients? What are the outcomes? Blood Purif ; 29 : — The benefit of salt restriction in the treatment of end-stage renal disease by haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 24 : — J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 31 : — Timing of blood pressure medications and intradialytic hypotension.

Achieving blood pressure targets during dialysis improves control but increases intradialytic hypotension. Kidney Int ; 73 : — Effect of predialysis verapamil on intradialytic blood pressure in chronic hemodialysis patients. Agarwal R. Supervised atenolol therapy in the management of hemodialysis hypertension. Kidney Int ; 55 : — Can predialysis hypertension prevent intradialytic hypotension in hemodialysis patients?

Nephron Clin Pract ; : c — c Effect of amlodipine on cardiovascular events in hypertensive haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 23 : — Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In.

Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Article Contents Abstract. An update review of intradialytic hypotension: concept, risk factors, clinical implications and management Mehmet Kanbay , Mehmet Kanbay.

Correspondence to: Mehmet Kanbay; E-mail: drkanbay yahoo. Oxford Academic. Lale A Ertuglu. Baris Afsar. Elif Ozdogan. Dimitrie Siriopol. Adrian Covic. Carlo Basile. Division of Nephrology, Miulli General Hospital. Alberto Ortiz. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Intradialytic hypotension IDH is a frequent and serious complication of chronic haemodialysis, linked to adverse long-term outcomes including increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

Table 1. Different definitions of intradialysis hypotension used in recent years. Definitions for intradialytic hypotension. Decrease in SBP mmHg. Nadir in SBP mmHg. Decrease in MAP mmHg. Need for symptoms or intervention. Open in new tab. Table 2. EBPGs on haemodynamic instability [8]: key messages.

Prevention of IDH. The use of a dialysate calcium concentration of 1. Infusion of colloid solutions should be considered in patients who remain unresponsive to saline infusion. Open in new tab Download slide. Google Scholar Crossref. Search ADS. Google Scholar PubMed. For commercial re-use, please contact journals. Issue Section:. Download all slides. Comments 0. Add comment Close comment form modal. I agree to the terms and conditions.

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Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. More on this topic Treatment of severe ultrafiltration failure with nonglucose dialysis solutions in patients with and without peritoneal sclerosis. Management of patients with a failed kidney transplant: what should we do?

Efficacy of enoxaparin in preventing coagulation during high-flux haemodialysis, expanded haemodialysis and haemodiafiltration.

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8 thought on “Wavematic - Various - Osmotic Wave (CD)”

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    Split-root Pisum sativum, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stenotaphrum secundatum plants were subjected to osmotic stress or drought while sharing one of their rooting volumes with an unstressed neighbour, which in turn shared its other rooting volume with additional unstressed neighbours. Following the kinetics of stomatal aperture allowed testing for stress responses in both the Missing: Wavematic.
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