Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Background and Aims. Cynodon dactylon , Digitaria sanguinalis , drought stress , osmotic stress , phenotypic plasticity , Pisum sativum , plant communication , root communication , root signalling , Stenotaphrum secundatum , stress cues.
Split-root Pisum sativum L. Each IND plant had three similarly sized roots, two of which were planted in an exclusive induction pot, which was subjected to either osmotic stress or a benign control treatment yellow pot, Fig. The third root of each IND plant was planted in a second pot, sharing its rooting volume with the roots of five intact target plants T1—T5; Fig. This configuration allowed the target plants to both perceive stress cues from the IND plant and exchange amongst themselves stress cues.
Open in new tab Download slide. On the receiver unstressed plant end, plastic responsiveness to anticipatory cues regarding imminent stress may help plants to avoid potentially significant costs associated with constitutive stress adaptations Heil and Karban, , and references therein. In the case of drought and osmotic stress, both constitutive and induced adaptions may include costly allocation to specific attributes e.
Skirycz and Inze, , which, in and of themselves, might significantly limit plant performance under benign conditions Sambatti and Caylor, Much like in the case of the induction of defences against herbivores Kessler and Heil, , responses to stress cues may result in reduced performance. For example, Falik et al. It is expected that unstressed cue receivers will also incur long-term costs related to increased stress readiness priming , which may come at the expense of fitness losses under benign conditions, i.
In addition, due to allocation trade-offs, both induced and primed plants might be more vulnerable to additional challenges such as competition and herbivory. Ongoing research is aimed at studying the potential adaptive consequences of responsiveness to communicated stress cues with an emphasis on separating the potential induction of a elevated stress adaptation and b increased latent readiness to develop full-scale stress adaption priming to forthcoming stress conditions.
Although a recent study has demonstrated clear fitness costs to induction of resistance against pathogens but no costs to priming for the same adaptations van Hulten et al. Google Scholar Crossref. Search ADS.
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Correspondence to E. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Opioids were one of the earliest classes of medications used for pain across a variety of conditions, but morbidity and mortality have been increasingly associated with their chronic use.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Trends in total opioid consumption by country between and Opioid-induced gastrointestinal effects Substantial evidence links opioid use to compounding and deleterious gastrointestinal-related adverse effects, collectively known as opioid-induced bowel dysfunction OIBD. Figure 2. Summary of opioid-induced effects within the gastrointestinal system.
Opioid-induced constipation. Narcotic bowel syndrome. Figure 3. Putative mechanisms for narcotic bowel syndrome and other models of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Prevention and treatment considerations Patients with chronic pain who request opioids pose an ethical dilemma to clinicians who strive to find a balance between adequate pain relief and the risks of misuse and abuse of opioids.
Box 1 Risk mitigation when prescribing opioids. Opioid detoxification. Alternative pharmacological treatments. Table 1 Evidence for antidepressant medication efficacy for treating abdominal pain. Study design Number of studies number of participants Medication versus comparison groups Duration of therapy weeks Selected outcome assessment Summary of evidence of efficacy TCAs Ford et al. Box 2 Definitions of psychological confounders of opioid management.
Nonpharmacological treatments for pain. Study design Number of studies included number of participants Behavioural interventions included Outcomes of interest Summary of evidence for behavioural interventions Altayar et al. Psychopathological considerations. Conclusions Opioid misuse is a global epidemic and has led to substantial increases in opioid-related abuse and mortality. Box 3 Outstanding research questions for managing chronic abdominal pain. Acknowledgements M.
Footnotes Competing interests E. References 1. Berterame S et al. Use of and barriers to access to opioid analgesics: a worldwide, regional, and national study. Lancet , — Psychopharmacol 16 , — Pain 18 , — Pain 19 , 59—66 Drug Policy 25 , — The Economist. Pain Manag. Nurs 1 , 3—12 World Health Organization.
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The global epidemiology and burden of opioid dependence: results from the global burden of disease study. Addiction , — Lancet Psychiatry 3 , — Boscarino JA et al. Risk factors for drug dependence among out-patients on opioid therapy in a large US health-care system. Pain 8 , — Katz NP et al. Behavioral monitoring and urine toxicology testing in patients receiving long-term opioid therapy.
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Bowel Dis 18 , — Pancreas 41 , — Dorn S et al. Patients with IBS commonly use narcotics [abstract]. Gastroenterology Suppl. Barth KS et al. Screening for current opioid misuse and associated risk factors among patients with chronic nonalcoholic pancreatitis pain.
Pain Med 15 , — Pneumatic compression, but not exercise, can avoid intradialytic hypotension: a randomized trial. Am J Nephrol ; 45 : — How to successfully achieve salt restriction in dialysis patients? What are the outcomes? Blood Purif ; 29 : — The benefit of salt restriction in the treatment of end-stage renal disease by haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 24 : — J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 31 : — Timing of blood pressure medications and intradialytic hypotension.
Achieving blood pressure targets during dialysis improves control but increases intradialytic hypotension. Kidney Int ; 73 : — Effect of predialysis verapamil on intradialytic blood pressure in chronic hemodialysis patients. Agarwal R. Supervised atenolol therapy in the management of hemodialysis hypertension. Kidney Int ; 55 : — Can predialysis hypertension prevent intradialytic hypotension in hemodialysis patients?
Nephron Clin Pract ; : c — c Effect of amlodipine on cardiovascular events in hypertensive haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 23 : — Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In.
Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Article Contents Abstract. An update review of intradialytic hypotension: concept, risk factors, clinical implications and management Mehmet Kanbay , Mehmet Kanbay.
Correspondence to: Mehmet Kanbay; E-mail: drkanbay yahoo. Oxford Academic. Lale A Ertuglu. Baris Afsar. Elif Ozdogan. Dimitrie Siriopol. Adrian Covic. Carlo Basile. Division of Nephrology, Miulli General Hospital. Alberto Ortiz. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Intradialytic hypotension IDH is a frequent and serious complication of chronic haemodialysis, linked to adverse long-term outcomes including increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.
Table 1. Different definitions of intradialysis hypotension used in recent years. Definitions for intradialytic hypotension. Decrease in SBP mmHg. Nadir in SBP mmHg. Decrease in MAP mmHg. Need for symptoms or intervention. Open in new tab. Table 2. EBPGs on haemodynamic instability : key messages.
Prevention of IDH. The use of a dialysate calcium concentration of 1. Infusion of colloid solutions should be considered in patients who remain unresponsive to saline infusion. Open in new tab Download slide. Google Scholar Crossref. Search ADS. Google Scholar PubMed. For commercial re-use, please contact journals. Issue Section:. Download all slides. Comments 0. Add comment Close comment form modal. I agree to the terms and conditions.
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Efficacy of enoxaparin in preventing coagulation during high-flux haemodialysis, expanded haemodialysis and haemodiafiltration.Explore releases from the Deepsink label. Discover what's missing in your discography and shop for Deepsink releases.