Did Islamic theology have some influence in Byzantine Iconoclasm? And the reverse? Just wondering if the following article is relevant to this topic. Many of the original artwork destroyed in Europe during the Iconoclasm Period were images of the original depictions of Mary and Christ. The Orthodox had Images of 'semi-Africans' The artists were not fully sure of what african features were, besides dark skin and curly black hair, thus the paintings and coins had european shaped faces with dark skin and curly black hair.
Western Europe destroyed these original depictions. In Russia, the images survived destruction. This link shows a range of artwork from the times. There are tons of sites, and the artwork is for sale in some places. Germanos, the iconodule Patriarch of Constantinople, either resigned or was deposed following the ban, expressing concern that it would undermine the doctrine of the Incarnation. During this initial period concern on the side of the emperor seems to have had little to do with theology and more with practical evidence and effects.
Icon veneration was forbidden simply because it was seen as a violation of the biblical commandment forbidding making and venerating images. It also gave some the opportunity to enrich themselves through the confiscation of icons, as evidenced by the Council of Hieria's condemnation of the practice in Problem: The lack of theological defense was not merely on the side of the emperor at this point.
Problem: Who are the "some"? If you want to say it was Leo, simply do so and back it up with a quoted citation, but avoid given the impression that Leo's opposition to icons was primarily for enriching his coffers, for which there is no evidence. Otherwise that "some" enriched themselves is immaterial.
In a response recalling the later Protestant Reformation, Constantine moved against the monasteries, had relics thrown into the sea, and stopped the invocation of saints.
The "Iconoclastic Council" of anathemetized anyone who "denies the profit of the invocation of Saints" among others. Problem: You present it without any point. The real point would be that Constantine apparently held some personal beliefs that went beyond the declaration of the Council of Hieria. Your problem, then, is how to present that in the context of the present article as somehow relevant. It would be very relevant in an article on Constantine, but it seems inserted here merely to "make Constantine look bad.
At present it is more appropriate to Constantine's personal psychology and a separate article on him. You also removed a bit of information on how Patriarch Germanos thought that a change of stance would show "the church had erred. It has been returned, and any addition will be considered for future inclusion, but merely replacing it with a quite different statement is something else.
It has come to our attention that a number of important events and anti-theological dispositions during the terror have been fundamentally excluded from the present page. We thus would welcome a chance to offer four points of analysis that we believe will contribute to the already informative page you oversee. These points are 1 A more precise description of the transformation of Notre Dame into a Temple of Reason, 2 The removal of fine art with depictions of the former monarchy as divine, as carried out by Revolutionary activist groups during the Terror, 3 Ritual burnings of religious volumes, and their replacement with enlightenment texts in public thought and discourse, and 4 The desecration of the royal tombs.
Iconoclasm forbade the making of any image or painting that was intended to represent Jesus or one of the saints.
If anyone shall endeavour to represent the forms of the Saints in lifeless pictures with material colours which are of no value for this notion is vain and introduced by the devil , and does not rather represent their virtues as living images in himself, let him be anathema!
Mark's summary is incorrect. Iconoclasm did not condemn the making of any lifeless image. It condemned the making of images of God, Of Jesus, of the angels and saints for veneration. Secular images were not forbidden, nor was the cross, which was used to replace forbidden images in churches. I don't know nearly enough to do this, but there really should be a section on Russian peasant iconoclasm, as it was such a major part of the history.
Nearly every peasant revolt involved destroying "foreign" symbols, which were usually non-reigious things such as glass windows, or mantleplaces. Yes there was sometimes religoius aspects as well, but that was still 'out with the new, in with the old' iconoclasm.
The Councils were numbered later on, and this one isn't the Seventh EC. This is factually incorrect. Not only does it contradict the next few comments, but St. John Damascene used Biblical and Patristic material in his support of the veneration of images. The Patristic support is vastly more supportive of the Iconodule position than the Iconoclast one. Avraamrii , 4 December UTC. You may want to investigate that among Spanish Catholics there was a rumor that the Durch Reformers smashed the images of the saints but did not break the images of the devils subjugated by those saints.
See Talk:Aniconism for my reasons against a complete merge. Wesley , 6 February UTC. In the current version of Islamic iconoclasm there are two out of a total of three paragraphs dealing with the reconversion of non-islamic religious builings into mosques.
I don't think they should be in this article since the destructive action is directed against the builing as a whole and not against the images in it. A good example however is the plastering of the floor of the Aya Sophia. Turned out to be a fake story. In Quebec cultural officials claimed there was graffiti and vandalism at the Qajartalik site.
Daniel Gendron, archeologist with the Avataq Cultural Institute, who hadn't visited the site or examined the damage, said that it could follow the pattern of previous "attacks" by Christian Inuit in northern Quebec, who are now carving Christian symbols in their traditional holy places.
But Kangiqsujuaq's mayor, Mary Pilurtuut, said she hadn't been informed of recent damage at the site and doubted "something religious" would have been involved. The damage was most likely done by artifact looting in the 80's. My apologies; I had written an explanation here before editing the previous version of this sentence, but seem not to have saved it:.
The continuing cultural confrontation with, and military threat from, the inherently "iconoclastic" Islam probably had a bearing on the attitudes of both sides.
There has always been a debate about the proper role of images in Islamic, as in Christian, society; and in the period in question there was in fact a robust tradition of figural representation in the caliphate, both in secular e.
Debate seems to have centred on the validity of the depiction of Jesus , and the validity of images of other figures followed on from this for both sides. The main points of the iconoclast argument were:. If anyone shall endeavour to represent the forms of the Saints in lifeless pictures with material colours which are of no value for this notion is vain and introduced by the devil , and does not rather represent their virtues as living images in himself, he is an adversary of God" .
The Law of Moses and the Prophets cooperated to remove this ruin But the previously mentioned demiurge of evil The chief theological opponents of iconoclasm were the monks Mansur John of Damascus , who, living in Muslim territory as advisor to the Caliph of Damascus, was far enough away from the Byzantine emperor to evade retribution, and Theodore the Studite , abbot of the Stoudios monastery in Constantinople.
John declared that he did not worship matter, "but rather the creator of matter. This distinction between worship and veneration is key in the arguments of the iconophiles. Emperors had always intervened in ecclesiastical matters since the time of Constantine I. As Cyril Mango writes, "The legacy of Nicaea, the first universal council of the Church, was to bind the emperor to something that was not his concern, namely the definition and imposition of orthodoxy, if need be by force.
The iconoclastic period has drastically reduced the number of survivals of Byzantine art from before the period, especially large religious mosaics, which are now almost exclusively found in Italy and Saint Catherine's Monastery in Egypt.
A large mosaic of a church council in the Imperial Palace was replaced by lively secular scenes, and there was no issue with imagery per se. The plain Iconoclastic cross that replaced a figurative image in the apse of St Irene's is itself an almost unique survival, but careful inspection of some other buildings reveals similar changes.
In Nicaea , photographs of the Church of the Dormition, taken before it was destroyed in , show that a pre-iconoclasm standing Theotokos was replaced by a large cross, which was itself replaced by the new Theotokos seen in the photographs. The period of Iconoclasm decisively ended the so-called Byzantine Papacy under which, since the reign of Justinian I a century before, the popes in Rome had been initially nominated by, and later merely confirmed by, the emperor in Constantinople, and many of them had been Greek-speaking.
By the end of the controversy the pope had approved the creation of a new emperor in the West, and the old deference of the Western church to Constantinople had gone. Opposition to icons seems to have had little support in the West and Rome took a consistently iconodule position. When the struggles flared up, Pope Gregory II had been pope since , not long after accompanying his Syrian predecessor Pope Constantine to Constantinople, where they successfully resolved with Justinian II the issues arising from the decisions of the Quinisext Council of , which no Western prelates had attended.
Of the delegation of 13 Gregory was one of only two non-Eastern; it was to be the last visit of a pope to the city until There had already been conflicts with Leo III over his very heavy taxation of areas under Roman jurisdiction. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Iconoclast controversy. For other uses, see Iconoclasm. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Summer History of Religions. The Inheritance of Rome. England: Penguin. Byzantium The Early Centuries. London: Penguin. Ancient History Encyclopedia. University of Toronto Press. Mango and R. Scott, trs. Mango, ed. Bryer and J. Herrin, eds. Louth, tr. Roth, tr. Mondzain, tr. Historia: the Alpha Rho Papers.
Retrieved 31 Oct — via epubs. Byzantium A History. Gloucestershire: Tempus. January 28, New Advent. History of Christianity. In CE, Constantine summoned the first ecumenical council concerned with religious imagery, the Council of Hieria; bishops attended. John of Damascus, a Syrian monk living outside Byzantine territory, became a major opponent of iconoclasm through his theological writings. After Leo IV too died, Irene called another ecumenical council, the Second Council of Nicaea, in CE, that reversed the decrees of the previous iconoclast council and restored image worship, marking the end of the First Iconoclasm.
This may have been an attempt to soothe the strained relations between Constantinople and Rome. Emperor Leo V the Armenian instituted a second period of Iconoclasm in CE, again possibly motivated by military failures seen as indicators of divine displeasure.
The Byzantines had suffered a series of humiliating defeats at the hands of the Bulgarian Khan Krum. It was made official in CE at a meeting of the clergy in the Hagia Sophia. Skip to main content. Search for:. Iconoclasm in Byzantium Learning Objective Understand the reasoning and events that led to iconoclasm.
They truly signify Christ, who is glorified in them. They make manifest the "cloud of witnesses" [Heb ] who continue to participate in the salvation of the world and to whom we are united, above all in sacramental celebrations.
Through their icons, it is man "in the image of God," finally transfigured "into his likeness" [Cf. Rom ; 1 John ], who is revealed to our faith. So too are the angels, who also are recapitulated in Christ:.
John Damascene, De imag 1,27]. Similarly, the contemplation of sacred icons, united with meditation on the Word of God and the singing of liturgical hymns, enters into the harmony of the signs of celebration so that the mystery celebrated is imprinted in the heart's memory and is then expressed in the new life of the faithful. The divine injunction included the prohibition of every representation of God by the hand of man. Deuteronomy explains: "Since you saw no form on the day that the Lord spoke to you at Horeb out of the midst of the fire, beware lest you act corruptly by making a graven image for yourselves in the form of any figure It is the absolutely transcendent God who revealed himself to Israel.
He is "the author of beauty" [Wisdom ]. Nevertheless, already in the Old Testament, God ordained or permitted the making of images that pointed symbolically toward salvation by the incarnate Word: so it was with the bronze serpent, the ark of the covenant, and the cherubim [Num ; Wis ; John ; Exod ; 1 Kings ; ]. Basing itself on the mystery of the incarnate Word, the seventh ecumenical council at Nicaea justified against the iconoclasts the veneration of icons -- of Christ, but also of the Mother of God, the angels, and all the saints.
By becoming incarnate, the Son of God introduced a new "economy" of images. The Christian veneration of images is not contrary to the first commandment which proscribes idols. Indeed, "the honor rendered to an image passes to its prototype," and "whoever venerates an image venerates the person portrayed in it" [St.
The honor paid to sacred images is a "respectful veneration," not the adoration due to God alone:. The movement toward the image does not terminate in it as image, but tends toward that whose image it is. Mircea Eliade, volume 7, p 2. Empress Irene assumed the regency Assisted by a high palace official, Tarasius, whom she made patriarch of Constantinople , she set to work Irene maneuvered skillfully to get her own men into the garrison, and the council convened a year later at Nicaea.
Tarasius and the empress now opened negotiations with Rome. They sent an embassy to Pope Adrian I acknowledging the primacy and begging him to come himself, or at least to send legates, to a council The pope answered by two letters, one for the empress and one for the patriarch It was attended by about bishops, under the presidency of Tarasius Pope Hadrian I sent two priests, both called Peter, whose names stand first in the Acts [of the Council] The decrees of the Synod [Nicaea II] were publicly proclaimed in an eighth session at Constantinople in the presence of Irene and her son, and signed by them; whereupon the bishops, with the people and soldiers, shouted in the usual form: 'Long live the orthodox queen-regent.
The Empress Irene "convened" organized, assembled the Council while Tarasius "presided" over the Council. Yup, I got it right. It lasted 15 days Sept 24 - Oct 7, and was entirely dominated by Patriarch Tarasius The council decree on iconoclasm, generically and moderately phrased, defined the legitimacy, the excellence, and the limitations of veneration or 'relative' cult of images. If Adrian could not come himself, would he send worthy men to represent him?Oct 12, · Tate’s show explores historical iconoclasm by examining the contested relationship between art and power. But it is worth remembering that these conflicts are very much alive today, wherever art is publicly displayed. ‘Art under Attack: Histories of British Iconoclasm’ is on at Tate Britain, London, until 5 January