High-explosive anti-tank rounds caused a revolution in anti-tank warfare when they were first introduced in the later stages of World War II. One infantryman could effectively destroy any existing tank with a handheld weapon, thereby dramatically altering the nature of mobile operations. The general public remained in the dark about shape charge warheads, even believing that it was a new secret explosive, until early when the US Army cooperated with the US monthly publication Popular Science on a large and detailed article on the subject titled It makes steel flow like mud.
After the war, HEAT rounds became almost universal as the primary anti-tank weapon. Variants of varying effectiveness were produced for almost all weapons from infantry weapons like rifle grenades and the M grenade launcher , to larger dedicated anti-tank systems like the Carl Gustav recoilless rifle.
When combined with the wire-guided missile , infantry weapons were able to operate at long-ranges also. Anti-tank missiles altered the nature of tank warfare throughout the s and into the 80s, and remain effective to this day. The stream moves at hypersonic speeds in solid material and therefore erodes exclusively in the contact area of jet and armor material. The correct detonation point of the warhead and spacing is critical for optimum penetration, for two reasons:.
The key to the effectiveness of a HEAT round is the diameter of the warhead. As the penetration continues through the armor, the width of the hole decreases leading to a characteristic fist to finger penetration, where the size of the eventual finger is based on the size of the original fist.
Since then, the penetration of HEAT rounds relative to projectile diameters has steadily increased as a result of improved liner material and metal jet performance. HEAT warheads are less effective if spinning, and grow ever less effective with faster spin.
This became a challenge for weapon designers: for a long time, spinning a shell was the most standard method to obtain good accuracy, as with any rifled gun. The centrifugal force of a spinning shell disperses the charged jet . Most hollow charge projectiles are fin-stabilized and not spin-stabilized. In recent years, it has become possible to use shaped charges in spin-stabilized projectiles by imparting an opposite spin on the jet so that the two spins cancel out and result in a non-spinning jet.
This is done either using fluted copper liners, which have raised ridges, or by forming the liner in such a way that it has a crystalline structure which imparts spin to the jet. Besides spin-stabilization, another problem with any barreled weapon that is, a gun is that a large-diameter shell has worse accuracy than a small-diameter shell of the same weight.
The lessening of accuracy increases dramatically with range. Paradoxically, this leads to situations when a kinetic armor-piercing projectile is more usable at long ranges than a HEAT projectile, despite the latter having a higher armor penetration. A further problem is that, if the warhead is contained inside the barrel, its diameter becomes overly restricted by the caliber of that barrel. In non-gun applications, when HEAT warheads are delivered with missiles , rockets , bombs , grenades , or spigot mortars , the warhead size is no longer a limiting factor.
In these cases, HEAT warheads often seem oversized in relation to the round's body. Many HEAT-armed missiles today have two or more separate warheads termed a tandem charge to be more effective against reactive or multi-layered armor.
The first, smaller warhead initiates the reactive armor, while the second or other , larger warhead penetrates the armor below.
This approach requires highly sophisticated fuzing electronics to set off the two warheads the correct time apart, and also special barriers between the warheads to stop unwanted interactions; this makes them cost more to produce.
The latest HEAT warheads, such as 3BK, feature triple charges: the first penetrates the spaced armor, the second the reactive or first layers of armor, and the third one finishes the penetration. This warhead type uses the interaction of the detonation wave s , and to a lesser extent the propulsive effect of the detonation products, to deform a dish or plate of metal iron, tantalum, etc. The SFF is relatively unaffected by first-generation reactive armor, it can also travel more than 1, cone diameters CDs before its velocity becomes ineffective at penetrating armor due to aerodynamic drag, or hitting the target becomes a problem.
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Business owners may build a better business credit profile over time while enjoying exclusive financing offers and low monthly payments. Best value gaming laptops with all the gaming essentials you need to experience split-second responsiveness and immersive gameplay. This can be a very hard habit to break them of. Thin eggshells are typically misshapen and have small holes in them which makes them unsaleable and they cannot be safely stored. Occasionally a strain of birds or an individual bird is just predisposed to laying thin shelled eggs.
Thin eggshells are uncommon with commercial hen strains. Commercial keepers almost invariably feed prepared compounds such as layers pellet which prevents the problem appearing. Chickens are a little like children who, given the chance, will try and live on chocolates and ice cream. Well meaning keepers sometimes give their hens more treats than are good for them. For example; hens love tomatoes.
Can be cast on creep-heroes , however, it does not reflect any spell on them. Applies a basic dispel on the target upon cast. When a spell is blocked by Linken's Sphere , it still gets reflected. Does not reflect spells cast by allies. For a list of reflected spells, see Spell Reflection.
Main Article: Spell Reflection. Hidden category: Pages using DynamicPageList dplreplace parser function. Navigation menu Namespaces Page Discussion.Mar 09, · Tyler Sprague is an assistant professor of architecture who studies and teaches structural design and architectural history. A former structural engineer himself, Sprague is the author of “Sculpture on a Grand Scale: Jack Christiansen’s Thin Shell Modernism.” The book, published in by University of Washington press, is a study of the life and work of the architect who designed.