Saccharin Saccharin is approved for use in food as a non-nutritive sweetener. Aspartame Aspartame is approved for use in food as a nutritive sweetener. Acesulfame potassium Ace-K Acesulfame potassium is approved for use in food as a non-nutritive sweetener. Sucralose Sucralose is approved for use in food as a non-nutritive sweetener. Neotame Neotame is approved for use in food as a non-nutritive sweetener.
Advantame Advantame is approved for use in food as a non-nutritive sweetener. Steviol glycosides Steviol glycosides are natural constituents of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Bertoni, a plant native to parts of South America and commonly known as Stevia. Luo Han Guo fruit extracts Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle fruit extract SGFE contains varying levels of mogrosides, which are the non-nutritive constituents of the fruit primarily responsible for the characteristic sweetness of SGFE.
Approved as a sweetener and flavor enhancer in foods generally except in meat and poultry 21 CFR Approved as a sweetener and flavor enhancer in foods generally 21 CFR Approved as a sweetener only in certain special dietary foods and as an additive used for certain technological purposes 21 CFR Certain high purity steviol glycosides purified from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Bertoni.
Approved as a sweetener in foods generally 21 CFR Read more about Aspartame and other Sweeteners. The Groliers encyclopedia states cancer cannot live without phenylalanine.
Phenylalanine is one of the essential amino acids found in proteins, but I am one of the believers that amino acids should be eaten in combination, not in isolated form. Nature provides amino acids in combination; only man isolates them for processing purposes. Phenylalanine is found naturally in foods such as eggs, milk, bananas, and meat.
If you are PKU Phenylketonuric or sensitive to phenylalanine, you will react to the phenylalanine in aspartame. You many want to get a blood test to check for this condition. Over the past 20 years, humans have become more aware of PKU reactions because human beings began using isolated phenylalanine to the degree it is harmful to some individuals, many as aspartame side effects. My suggestion would be to research PKU and phenylalanine extensively.
Phenylalanine can be very harmful to diabetics. Read all food labels and avoid anything with isolated amino acids. You want to buy products with at least eight amino acids in combination. Warm nights and quizzes. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Listen to the words and spell through all three levels.
Login or Register. Save Word. Log In. Definition of aspartame. In , the FDA notified then-U. Skinner's successor was in place several months later, and the statute of limitations for the alleged offenses expired in October Senate approved the nomination of Sam Skinner to be Secretary of Transportation , noting that both Sullivan and Senator Metzenbaum had concluded that Skinner had not acted improperly.
Ralph G. Walton, a psychiatrist at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine , stated in a self-published analysis of aspartame research that industry-funded studies found no safety concerns while 84 of 92 independent studies did identify safety concerns.
An analysis of Walton's claims showed that Walton left out at least 50 peer-reviewed safety studies from his review of the literature and that most of the research he cites as non-industry funded were actually letters to the editors, case reports, review articles or book chapters rather than published studies.
An elaborate health scare ,  involving a hoax conspiracy theory disseminated on many websites in , attributes a host of deleterious medical effects to aspartame. This theory claims that the FDA approval process of aspartame was tainted    and cites as its source an email based upon a supposed talk by a "Nancy Markle" thought to be Betty Martini, who first circulated the email  at a "World Environmental Conference.
Its contents were entirely false, misleading, and defamatory to various popular products and their manufacturers, with no basis whatever in fact. The "Markle" email says that there is a conspiracy between the FDA and the producers of aspartame, and the conspiracy theory has become a canonical example discussed on several Internet conspiracy theory and urban legend websites.
The tutorial implied that the "Markle" letter was not credible and stated that it should not be used as an authoritative source of information. Dean Edell warned very strongly against the "Markle" letter:. In , due to public concerns, the U. In , the Indonesian government considered banning aspartame. In , the U. In April , Ajinomoto Sweeteners Europe, one of the makers of aspartame in Europe, responded to Asda's "no nasties" campaign by filing a complaint of malicious falsehood against Asda in the English courts.
In , the South African retailer Woolworths announced it was removing aspartame-containing foods from its own-brand range. In , the British Food Standards Agency funded a clinical study of people who claimed to experience side-effects after consuming aspartame. The FSA's Committee on Toxicity evaluated the results at its meeting in October , and determined that "the results presented did not indicate any need for action to protect the health of the public. In May , EFSA was asked by the European Commission to bring forward the full re-evaluation of the safety of aspartame E , which was previously planned for completion by This includes previously unpublished scientific data, "including the original studies on aspartame which were submitted to support the request for authorisation of aspartame in Europe in the early s.
The Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation of Oncology and Environmental Sciences ERF published studies claiming aspartame increases several malignancies in rodents, concluding it a potential carcinogen at normal dietary doses. After reviewing the foundation's claims, the EFSA  and the FDA  discounted the study results finding significant methodological issues as reason to retain their previously established acceptable daily intake levels for aspartame.
Based upon the data provided, the ERF's published conclusions were not supportable. The regulatory agencies Health Canada  and the British Committee on Carcinogenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment  likewise found the methodological problems in the research justified rejecting the claims and retaining established policy.
A blind safety review by a ten member, international panel of experts Magnuson of the scientific literature concurred with the regulatory agency evaluations finding many flaws in the study's design, implementation, and conclusions.
Finding comprehensive contradiction in the research literature of any reasonable danger, in combination with the ERF's design and implementation issues, Magnuson concluded the research did not constitute credible evidence for the carcinogenicity of aspartame.
Another review criticized the ERF for relying on " science by press conference " with its release of results through the media before being published in a proper peer-reviewed journal, thus helping fuel the controversy and publicity about the study in the media. Methods for directly producing aspartyl-phenylalanine by enzymatic means, followed by chemical methylation, have also been tried, but not scaled for industrial production. The acceptable daily intake ADI value for aspartame, as well as other food additives studied, is defined as the "amount of a food additive, expressed on a body weight basis, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without appreciable health risk.
The primary source for exposure to aspartame in the United States is diet soft drinks , though it can be consumed in other products, such as pharmaceutical preparations, fruit drinks, and chewing gum among others in smaller quantities.
Reviews have analyzed studies which have looked at the consumption of aspartame in countries worldwide, including the United States, countries in Europe, and Australia, among others. These reviews have found that even the high levels of intake of aspartame, studied across multiple countries and different methods of measuring aspartame consumption, are well below the ADI for safe consumption of aspartame.
In a report released on 10 December , the EFSA said that, after an extensive examination of evidence, it ruled out the "potential risk of aspartame causing damage to genes and inducing cancer," and deemed the amount found in diet sodas safe to consume.
Aspartame was discovered in by James M. Schlatter, a chemist working for G. Schlatter had synthesized aspartame as an intermediate step in generating a tetrapeptide of the hormone gastrin , for use in assessing an anti- ulcer drug candidate.
In , prompted by issues regarding Flagyl and Aldactone , a U. FDA task force team reviewed 25 studies submitted by the manufacturer, including 11 on aspartame. The team reported "serious deficiencies in Searle's operations and practices". In , the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition CFSAN concluded, since many problems with the aspartame studies were minor and did not affect the conclusions, the studies could be used to assess aspartame's safety.
The PBOI concluded aspartame does not cause brain damage, but it recommended against approving aspartame at that time, citing unanswered questions about cancer in laboratory rats. Citing data from a Japanese study that had not been available to the members of the PBOI,  and after seeking advice from an expert panel that found fault with statistical analyses underlying the PBOI's hesitation, yet argued against approval,  : 53 FDA commissioner Hayes approved aspartame for use in dry goods.
Several European Union countries approved aspartame in the s, with EU-wide approval in The European Commission Scientific Committee on Food reviewed subsequent safety studies and reaffirmed the approval in The European Food Safety Authority reported in that the previously established Acceptable daily intake was appropriate, after reviewing yet another set of studies. Under the trade names Equal , NutraSweet , and Canderel , aspartame is an ingredient in approximately 6, consumer foods and beverages sold worldwide, including but not limited to diet sodas and other soft drinks, instant breakfasts, breath mints, cereals, sugar-free chewing gum, cocoa mixes, frozen desserts, gelatin desserts, juices, laxatives, chewable vitamin supplements, milk drinks, pharmaceutical drugs and supplements, shake mixes, tabletop sweeteners, teas, instant coffees , topping mixes, wine coolers and yogurt.
It is provided as a table condiment in some countries. Aspartame is less suitable for baking than other sweeteners, because it breaks down when heated and loses much of its sweetness. In , Monsanto Company bought G. Searle,  and the aspartame business became a separate Monsanto subsidiary, the NutraSweet Company.
In March , Monsanto sold it to J. Since then, the company has competed for market share with other manufacturers, including Ajinomoto , Merisant and the Holland Sweetener Company. Many aspects of industrial synthesis of aspartame were established by Ajinomoto. In , Ajinomoto sued British supermarket chain Asda , part of Wal-Mart , for a malicious falsehood action concerning its aspartame product when the substance was listed as excluded from the chain's product line, along with other "nasties".
In November , Ajinomoto announced a new brand name for its aspartame sweetener — AminoSweet. Because sucralose , unlike aspartame, retains its sweetness after being heated, and has at least twice the shelf life of aspartame, it has become more popular as an ingredient.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. CAS Number. Interactive image. PubChem CID. Chemical formula. Solubility in water. Food portal Medicine portal. The Merck Index 11th ed. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Retrieved 24 August Government Accountability 17 July Retrieved 5 Septemberaspartame - an artificial sweetener made from aspartic acid; used as a calorie-free sweetener sweetener, sweetening - something added to foods to make them taste sweeter Based on WordNet , Farlex clipart collection. © Princeton University, Farlex Inc.