How efficient was the knockdown and is it possible that residual amounts of cullins remaining were sufficient to induce degradation of A3G-GFP? The vertical axis should indicate that a fold decrease in GFP expression was being measured to avoid confusion. Figure 6E — 6G: More informative figure legends and methods description are needed to clarify these results.
We appreciate the suggestions and apologize for missing the solid Western blot data in our results which we have now corrected. We would like to emphasize our revisions by the following points:. Meanwhile, we have also quantitated the Western blot bands and retrieved data from three independent experiments. B In the newly-added Figure 2—figure supplement 1A, we sequenced the target motif of A3G on HIV-1 protease the prot nt region to detect hypermutations.
Thanks for this suggestion. We originally used T cell line even though it does not have endogenous A3G. Although H9 cell line serves as a typical non-permissive cell and is frequently used for endogenous A3G study, it has a low expression of USP49 protein level data not shown. These are important findings that would be interesting to a broad audience of eLife, though the paper should be better written and some concerns need to be addressed before publication.
Thanks for these positive comments. We have gone through the whole manuscript very carefully to eliminate any grammar or presentational errors. Considering the nucleofection and infection may lead to many cell death and the cells is insufficient for western blot, we performed intracellular staining of A3G protein. We apologize for this mistake. We have carefully corrected all the presentational mistakes in the revised manuscript.
We will remember this lesson and will be extremely careful in all our research works and post-work presentations. Thanks for the constructive comments. We have performed additional experiments to provide more solid data and support our major conclusions. Through many times of experiments, we feel that the approximate 1.
The Vif-independent effect is observed at the 1 st lane, which indicates that while the amount of USP49 increased, A3G level also increased in the absence of Vif expression. The new Figure 1E were representative of three independent experiments and the error bars were provided.
Thanks for the comments and we have adjusted the amount of three plasmids emphasize contrast in the levels and obtained a more significant result in the new Figure 1E. Thanks for the suggestions and we have now added the western blotting data in our results. Meanwhile, we have also quantitated the Western blot bands and the results were representative of three independent experiments. Meanwhile, in the new Figure 2—figure supplement 1A, we sequenced the target motif of A3G on HIV-1 protease the prot nt region to detect hypermutations.
The results are shown in the new Figure 2—figure supplement 1B. All these experiments shown here represent at least three independent experiments and we quantitated the Western blot bands of A3G with Image J.
All these experiments shown here represent at least three independent experiments and representative data were showed in the new Figure 3F. This indicates that the siRNA for Cullin5 was very effective. Cullin7 is involved in the degradation of AID, which was reported by our group recently Luo et al.
In both experiments, the effects of Cullins were significantly inhibited by siRNA. Therefore, according to our existing experimental results, we believe that Cullin do not participate in the Vif-independent degradation pathway of A3G. We have described the details of IPDA methods in the revised manuscript. It is a quantitative approach for measuring the reservoir of latent HIV-1 proviruses.
These explanations were added to the manuscript in the Materials and methods section. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: All human samples were anonymously coded in accordance with the local ethical guidelines as stipulated by the Declaration of Helsinki. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited. Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Crossref , PubMed Central , Scopus.
However, the role of these pathways in different tissues is incompletely understood, an issue particularly relevant to the CMVs which have broad tissue tropisms.
Mutations in the Trypanosoma brucei aquaporin AQP2 are associated with resistance to pentamidine and melarsoprol. We demonstrate that TbAQP2's unique architecture permits pentamidine permeation through its central pore and show how specific mutations in highly conserved motifs affect drug permeation. Molecular dynamics demonstrates that permeation by dicationic pentamidine is energetically favourable in TbAQP2, driven by the membrane potential, although aquaporins are normally strictly impermeable for ionic species.
We also identify the structural determinants that make pentamidine a permeant although most other diamidine drugs are excluded. Our results have wide-ranging implications for optimising antitrypanosomal drugs and averting cross-resistance. Moreover, these new insights in aquaporin permeation may allow the pharmacological exploitation of other members of this ubiquitous gene family.
Local activation and long-range inhibition are mechanisms conserved in self-organizing systems leading to biological patterns. A number of them involve the production by the developing cell of an inhibitory morphogen, but how this cell becomes immune to self-inhibition is rather unknown.
Under combined nitrogen starvation, the multicellular cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC develops nitrogen-fixing heterocysts with a pattern of one heterocyst every vegetative cells. Cell differentiation is regulated by HetR which activates the synthesis of its own inhibitory morphogens, diffusion of which establishes the differentiation pattern.
Here we show that HetR interacts with HetL at the same interface as PatS, and that this interaction is necessary to suppress inhibition and to differentiate heterocysts. This protective mechanism might be conserved in other differentiating cyanobacteria as HetL homologues are spread across the phylum.
Cited 1 Views 1, Annotations Open annotations. The current annotation count on this page is being calculated. Gene scores were calculated using the gscore script from the Dub-seq python library with default parameters, which uses the nnls function from the optimize package of the scipy python library.
We used several filters to identify gene scores that were likely to be of high-confidence and reliable. Whereas the non-negative regression was used to determine if the high fitness of the fragments covering the gene are due to this gene or a nearby gene, these filters were intended to ensure that the fragments covering the gene had a genuine benefit.
Effects that passed these filters were more likely to be consistent in replicate experiments for example, see Fig. We considered an effect that passed these filters to be of high confidence if it was based on more than one fragment or if the gene had a large effect in another experiment for the compound.
In the following paragraphs, we detail these data filtration steps. In contrast, the actual conditions gave 40 large effects per experiment on average over times more. Second, we noticed that some genes had high scores because of a single fragment with a very high score. These fragments did not have high scores in replicate experiments, so their high scores might be due to secondary mutations. This test asks if the mean is significantly different from a reference value.
To handle uncertainty in the true centering of the fragment scores which were normalized to have a median of zero , we considered the mean of all fragment scores for the experiment.
This makes the filter slightly more stringent. Third, we checked that the effect was larger relative to the expected noise in the mean of the fragment scores that cover the gene. This approximation is derived from the best case that the noise in the counts follows a Poisson distribution.
Effects that passed these three filters were usually consistent across replicate experiments and represent reliable scores. We had two biological replicates for 64 of the 82 conditions a compound at a given concentration that we studied.
We did not identify any obvious issue for the data from this condition. In total, genes are covered by at least one fragment, but there are only genes with at least one gene score adequate representation in at least one start sample. Effects that passed these three filters were considered to be high confidence if the gene was covered by multiple fragments. To estimate the false discovery rate for high-confidence effects, we randomly shuffled the mapping of barcodes to fragments, recomputed the mean scores for each gene in each experiment, and identified high-confidence effects as for the genuine data.
This shuffling test will probably overestimate the false discovery rate because it assumes that all of the variability in the fragment scores is due to noise. Also, we used the mean score, rather than regression-based gene score, in this test.
This might also lead to an overestimate of the false discovery rate. We repeated the shuffle procedure 10 times. If a fragment contains a gene but not its promoter, then the gene might not be expressed and might not show a benefit.
In particular, genes that are in operons, but are not at the beginning of the operon, might not show a benefit. On the other hand, internal promoters within operons are common 74 , To determine if the lack of a promoter is a problem in practice, we asked how often genes at the beginning of transcripts or later in transcripts 76 had high-confidence fitness benefits.
To quantify the effect on gene fitness due to gene location within an operon, we made a list of genes that are found first in a transcript or later in a transcript based on the operon structures from RegulonDB Genes that were at the beginning of one transcript and at a later position in another transcript were excluded.
This filtering narrowed down the list of genes in operons to that have Dub-seq data and gene fitness scores. We compared the fitness of the first and later genes in operons to examine the impact of operon structure in the Dub-seq data.
Although our model assumes that the genes on a fragment contribute independently to fitness, there are cases where multiple nearby genes work together to confer a phenotype. For a gene-pair to qualify to be valid hit, the score for the gene-pair has to be more than the individual gene scores from single-gene regression model, scores should be consistent across replicates and should be supported by more than one fragment.
Among these, three gene-pairs have related functions fetA - fetB on nickel, ampD - ampE on benzethonium, ackA - pta on D-lactate 49 and make biological sense. However, in the other three high scoring gene-pairs arcA - yjjY , hns - tdk and yfiF - trxC , each gene is divergently transcribed and the reason behind combined fitness phenotype is not obvious. We speculate, the fitness phenotype in these cases may be function of intergenic regions in addition to the encoded genes.
As the plasmid copy number and the strength of promoter and ribosome binding site used in the ASKA ORF collection is different from the broad host pBBR1 plasmid system used in E coli Dub-seq library, we screened for an optimum IPTG levels to induce the expression of specific gene in order to study the host fitness.
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Genome Res. If you have the time, please download and enjoy. This is hard to notice if you just drop in the code, as it only triggers on device enumeration and that likely only happens on startup or when a device change notification is received. I only noticed it because I temporarily modified my device enumeration code to run in a loop to see how fast or slow the WMI-based check would be. Semin Cell Dev Biol. Cyclin A-associated kinase activity is rate limiting for entrance into S phase and is negatively regulated in G1 by p27Kip1.
Keyomarsi K, Pardee AB. Redundant cyclin overexpression and gene amplification in breast cancer cells. Keyomarsi K, Conte D Jr.
Deregulation of cyclin E in breast cancer. Cyclin E overexpression obstructs infiltrative behavior in breast cancer: a novel role reflected in the growth pattern of medullary breast cancers.
Cyclin E and survival in patients with breast cancer. N Eng J Med. Cyclin E amplification, over-expression, and relapse-free survival in HERpositive primary breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. The multiple layers of ubiquitin-dependent cell cycle control. Chem Rev. Mol Cell. Ubiquitin-specific protease 22 is a deubiquitinase of CCNB1. Cell Discov. USP15 regulates dynamic protein-protein interactions of the spliceosome through deubiquitination of PRP Nucleic Acids Res. Regulation of cyclin E transcription by E2Fs and retinoblastoma protein. An integrated view of cyclin E function and regulation. Cell Cycle. Cullin-3 targets cyclin E for ubiquitination and controls S phase in mammalian cells.
Human F-box protein hCdc4 targets cyclin E for proteolysis and is mutated in a breast cancer cell line. Archipelago regulates Cyclin E levels in Drosophila and is mutated in human cancer cell lines. Suppression of cancer cell growth by promoting cyclin D1 degradation. USP22 antagonizes p53 transcriptional activation by deubiquitinating Sirt1 to suppress cell apoptosis and is required for mouse embryonic development.
Cell Rep. Download references. Correspondence to Zhenghong Lin. You do not have permission under this license to share adapted material derived from this article or parts of it. Reprints and Permissions. Dong, L. USPmediated Cyclin E stabilization drives cell cycle progression and hepatocellular tumorigenesis.
Oncogene 37, — Download citation. Received : 23 June Revised : 09 November Accepted : 19 December Published : 02 March Issue Date : 17 May Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences Redox Biology Oncogene Advanced search.
Skip to main content. Subjects Oncogenes Ubiquitylation. Abstract Overexpression of Cyclin E has been seen in many types of cancers. Download PDF. Introduction Cell cycle are controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases CDKs , which form a complex with a specific cyclin that periodically activates and directs its kinase activity toward specific substrates with temporal and spatial selectivity [ 1 , 2 ]. Results Library screening identified USP27 as Cyclin E interactor To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the aberrant protein expression of the cell cycle protein Cyclin E in tumorigenesis, we used a DUB library to screen Cyclin E-interacting protein, which might be responsible for its dysregulation.
Full size image. Materials and methods Nude mice Animal experiments were conducted under the guidance of Animal Management Regulations in Chongqing University.Check out Jazz Doubt / 2B by Capital Swing on Beatport. Welcome to Beatport. Beatport is the world's largest electronic music store for DJs.